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DISEASES OF THE BLOOLOOD VESSELS & THE PERICARDIUMD VESSELS

Several disorders of blood vessels are common. Atherosclerosis (deposits of cholesterol-containing plaques) in the arteries can cause partial or complete blockage of blood flow. Tissues downstream from the blockage receive insufficient oxygen-carrying blood. Atherosclerotic plaque in a carotid artery (at left) can impede blood flow to the brain. In addition, bits of blood clot or cholesterol can break off and plug smaller vessels in the brain, causing a stroke. One technique of detecting blockage in a vessel is Doppler ultrasonography (photograph inset): the arrow points to narrowing of the artery. Turbulence in the bloodstream, caused by the blockage, appears in blue in this Doppler image.

THE PERICARDIUM

The pericardium is a thin sac surrounding the consists of an inner and an outer layer. Normally, a small amount of fluid fills the space between the heart and pericardium.

Some conditions cause excess fluid to develop pericardial sac {pericardial effusion). If a large amount of fluid accumulates, it can push in on the walls of the heart, decreasing the ability of the heart to expand and take in blood during diastole. This condition, called cardiac tamponade, can diminish the effective pumping function of the heart. The fluid may need to be drained by a needle carefully inserted through the chest wall (pericardiocentesis).

Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis can condition that can cause chest pain. Some types of pericarditis can lead to thickening and stiffening of the pericardium overtime, en the heart in a rigid container. This constrictive pericarditis also leads to inefficient functioning of the heart, and it may require surgical removal of the pericardium.

On the chest X-ray, a pericardial effusion makes the heart look large.

Fluid accumulation in the pericardium can lead to tamponade, a condition in which the pressure of the fluid prevents the heart from filling adequately.

Thickened, Pericardiun constrictive pericarditis.

In constrictive pericarditis calcium sometimes deposits in the pericardium and can be seen on chest X-ray.

Every tissue in your body depends on your heart, but you may take for granted the perpetual beating that keeps you alive from the moment of birth until you die. How does this simple pump perform such an amazing task throughout your lifetime?

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Cardio & Blood-holesterol

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DISEASES OF THE BLOOD VESSELS & THE PERICARDIUM
PACEMAKERS AND DEFIBRILLATORS
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY CATHETERS
THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM
RESTORING CORONARY BLOOD FLOW
CORONARY ARTERIES
THE VALVES
HEART TRANSPLANTS
THE MYOCARDIUM (HEART MUSCLE): THE STRUCTURE & THE CELLS OF HEART MUSCLE
THE HEART MUSCLE